ERMA FIRST thanks TCM for invaluable support

ERMA FIRST, headquartered in Perama, Greece, stands out as a global leader in providing sustainable maritime equipment and solutions.

Advancing the maritime industry

Dimitris Koutsaftis, Senior Scientific Consultant, highlights ERMA FIRST’s commitment to advancing the maritime industry. In early 2022, the company launched an ambitious R&D program dedicated to decarbonization. This program focuses on exploring Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) solutions for commercial vessels.

Dimitris Koutsaftis emphasizes the pressing need for carbon-neutral operations in the maritime sector due to tightening environmental regulations and increasing awareness of climate change. He states, «Our goal is to be at the forefront of this transformative movement.» In this pursuit, ERMA FIRST values its collaboration TCM’s Advisory Services, which has proven to be immensely valuable.

Potrett av mann med mørkt hår og skjegg i dress, som ser mot kamera. Foto
Dimitris Koutsaftis is a Chemical Engineer with a Ph.D. in Electrochemistry from the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) and currently serves as the Senior Scientific Consultant at ERMA FIRST.

“What is your company’s vision for decarbonization?”

“At ERMA FIRST, environmental protection is deeply ingrained in our core values, shaping every aspect of our operations. Our vision is to maintain our prominent role in the shipping industry’s shift towards sustainability. We aim to accomplish this by offering a diverse range of innovative solutions. That actively combat to the challenges of decarbonization and align with International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) decarbonization objectives.”

“What are the key success factors for achieving success in capturing CO2 within the project?”

“For us, success will be defined by development of a system or a range of systems that demonstrate efficiency and reliability, consistently deliver desired results, and effectively tackle the challenges of CCS.”

“Why did you decide to partner with TCM?”

“TCM stands as the largest testing facility for CCS technologies globally. Right from the outset, we recognized the pivotal role that TCM’s expertise and resources would play in ensuring the successful execution of our project.”

“How has TCM contributes additional value to the project?”

“TCM has served as a reliable project advisor, imparting invaluable insights into CCS principles and aiding in the strategic formulation of the path leading to the successful development and introduction of ERMA FIRST’s new and innovative CCS technology.”

“What would you like to emphasize as a key advantage of the collaboration with TCM?”

“The most significant advantage has been the unfettered access to TCM’s vast reservoir of knowledge and expertise, particularly within the realm of amine-based CCS. The depth of knowledge sharing has played a pivotal role in the overarching success of the project.”

Skisse av store konteinere sett på skrå oven i fra. De er tegnet så kan kan delvis se inn i de hvor det er rørganger og bokser.
.ERMA FIRST is in the process of constructing a pilot CO2 capture facility. This is a model of the plant.

“Could you share some insights into your company’s roadmap for achieving its decarbonization goals?”

“Over the last two years, ERMA FIRST has expanded its product portfolio to offer a comprehensive range of solutions. The advocate for environmental conservation and bolster decarbonization initiatives. In alignment with our CCS project, we are presently in the process of constructing a pilot CO2 capture facility, slated for installation and testing on a commercial vessel in Q1 of 2024. Subsequently, a six-month testing phase will follow. We anticipate the commercial launch of our CCS product to commence in 2025.”

“Could you also discuss the primary challenge that keeps you engaged and the exciting opportunity that motivates you?”

“The challenge that consistently captures our attention is the pursuit of the ideal solution and the development of a product that meets our lofty standards and performs precisely as envisioned. Conversely, the exhilarating opportunity to make a substantial impact contribution to the industry’s shift towards sustainability and actively participate in its decarbonization voyage serves as our driving force.”

«Thank you, very much, and good luck, with your important work!»

TCM publication: Solvent Degradation, Management and Reclaiming

In order to be certain that carbon capture is working as best as possible for all types of plants and flue gas sources, it is important to test how the process works under different conditions. This is where TCM plays a key role.

We need to understand the processes in and around capture facilities

“At TCM, we’ve found that it is important to acquaint ourselves with capture processes, and those of us at the plant must collaborate across areas of responsibility. By doing this, we are able to gain an overview of what is going on in a plant, and what is happening during the capture process, which is where TCM’s measurement capabilities and experiences come in handy,” says Matthew Campbell, Technology Manager.

Experience from more than ten years of operations at TCM shows that it is essential to have full control of the entire capture process and of what is happening around the capture facility. TCM’s experiences show that you almost cannot be thorough enough. These experiences are described in the reports below.

To date, five reports have been published within this discipline

  • Solvent degradation and thermal reclaiming results from TCM testing (2022)
  • Multivariate data analysis of online-sensors and spectroscopic data for the prediction of solvent composition parameters for MEA (2022)
  • CO2 capture with monoethanolamine: Solvent management and environmental impacts during long term operation at the Technology Centre Mongstad (TCM) (2019)
  • Results from MEA Degradation and Reclaiming Processes at the CO2 Technology Centre Mongstad (2016)
  • Degradation and Emission Results of Amine Plant Operations from MEA Testing at the CO2 Technology Centre Mongstad (2016)

Unique results have been published; impurities in flue gases present challenges

TCM has investigated degradation and amine loss from the non-proprietary solvent CESAR 1, which is a mixture of water, amino-2-methylpropanol (AMP) and piperazine (PZ). The results came as a part of the ALIGN CCUS test campaign, during which a flue gas of around 3.7% CO2 volume from two different sources was used: Combined Heat and Power plant at Mongstad (CHP) and residue fluid catalytic cracking refinery (RFCC). Through this test campaign, we found that amine loss through degradation increases when the NO2 concentration at the absorber is increased. Due to impurities in the RFCC flue gas, TCM has measured higher amine loss through degradation of this gas than with the CHP flue gas. Amine loss through degradation for the CESAR 1 solvent was also compared with historical TCM results for monoethanolamine (MEA). The results indicate significantly lower amine loss for CESAR 1 than for MEA for both the CHP and RFCC flue gases.

You can read more about this as well as other tests that have been conducted on our website.

Contact Muhammed Ismail Shah for further details.

Below is an overview of the reports published by TCM and its various partners

1. TCM – Design and Construction

2. Operational Experience and Results

3. TCM – Verified Baseline Results

4. Emissions – Limits, Measurements and Mitigation

5. Aerosols & Mist Formation

6. Solvent Degradation, Management and Reclaiming

7. Process modelling, Scale-up and Cost reduction

8. Transient / Dispatchable operation & Process control

9. Corrosion & Materials

10. CESAR 1 Solvent

11. MEA Solvent

TCM Reports: Emissions – Limits, Measurements and Mitigation + Aerosols & Mist

One of TCM’s biggest focus areas has been on airborne emissions released from carbon capture processes, and this has been the case since the plant was built. Working in collaboration with other research communities and technology suppliers, we have sought to identify and deploy robust methods that ensure we adequately manage and monitor this issue.

For a better climate 

Samples are taken from the outlet of the TCM plant to ensure that emissions of amine components and associated degradation products are in line with the permit issued by the Norwegian environmental regulator. During all test campaigns, it is important to ensure that emissions to air are within the limits of the permit granted for the test. That is why we are always extremely careful at TCM about taking samples at all parts of the capture process, typically using multiple measurement techniques to ensure consistency and quality of these measurements. TCM has had close collaboration with the University of Oslo, the Climate and Environmental Research Institute NILU, the CLIMIT programme and various technology suppliers within this area and others. When it became evident that amines could undergo photochemical reactions with free radicals and NOx in the atmosphere to form nitrosamines and nitramines, the Norwegian environmental authorities reacted quickly. Since 2007, emissions of amines have been high on the agenda, and this is where TCM has contributed its experiences.

Through this work, a number of reports have been published, which can be read on our website.

Person iført verneutstyr som tar prøver utendørs fra røykgasspipene på TCM.. Foto.
Sampling from the flue gas pipes on TCM.

To date, fourteen reports have been produced

  • Real-time monitoring of 2-amino-2-methylpropan-1-ol and piperazine emissions to air from TCM post combustion CO2 capture plant during treatment of RFCC flue gas (2022)
  • Atmospheric emissions of amino-methyl-propanol, piperazine and their degradation products during the 2019-20 ALIGN-CCUS campaign at the Technology Centre Mongstad (2021)
  • Best practices for the measurement of 2-amino-2-methyl-1- propanol, piperazine and their degradation products in amine plant emissions (2021)
  • A compact and easy-to-use mass spectrometer for online monitoring of amines in the flue gas of a post-combustion carbon capture plant (2018)
  • Results from testing of a Brownian diffusion filter for reducing the aerosol concentration in a residual fluidized catalytic cracker flue gas at the Technology Centre Mongstad (2018)
  • Ambient Measurements of Amines by PTR-QiTOF: Instrument Performance Assessment and Results from Field Measurements in the Vicinity of TCM, Mongstad (2016)
  • Results from aerosol measurement in amine plant treating gas turbine and Residue Fluidized Catalytic Cracker flue gases at the CO2 Technology Centre Mongstad (2016)
  • Aerosol Measurement Technique: Demonstration at CO2 Technology Centre Mongstad (2015)
  • Controlling amine mist formation in CO2 capture from Residual Catalytic Cracker (RCC) flue gas (2014)
  • “Emission results of amine plant operations from MEA testing at the CO2 Technology Centre Mongstad” (2014)
  • Health risk analysis for emissions to air from CO2 Technology Centre Mongstad (2013)
  • Real-Time Monitoring of Emissions from Monoethanolamine-Based Industrial Scale Carbon Capture Facilities (2013)
  • Establishment of Knowledge base for Emission Regulation for the CO2 Technology Centre Mongstad (2012)
  • Health and environmental impact of amine-based post combustion CO2 capture (2012)

Being in control of emissions

Monitoring and understanding of emissions to air is crucial for the safe implementation of carbon capture in new industries. Each exhaust source has its own unique aspects, and it is important to uncover these. In order for amine technology to be used safely, commercial projects need to have access to reliable and accurate monitoring technologies. At TCM, rigorous online monitoring has been installed and demonstrated, and strong analyses have been developed in accordance with regulatory requirements. The ongoing work at TCM is also useful for the authorities, which will be setting the requirements for future full-scale CCS plants. Experiences on the kinds of acceptable intervals and the kinds of variations during a given period are being gained. TCM is building up this experience by looking at different parts of the capture process and taking measurements at different times and using different compositions of flue gases. Thanks to these test plans, TCM has been able to get a comprehensive picture of capture process.

Aerosol Emissions

Exhaust or flue gases from certain industrial sectors such as refineries or coal power plants can contain significant numbers of particles which can generate aerosol-based emission challenges in amine carbon capture processes. By running test campaigns using the flue gas from the Mongstad refinery, TCM has enhanced the understanding of this phenomena in non-proprietary test campaigns funded by the TCM Owners and also research projects such as the EU Aerosolve project.

Investigation, measurement and management of aerosol-based emissions at an industrial scale demonstration facility such as TCM has generated valuable learnings for the industry which are summarized in the TCM publications on this topic.

Below is an overview of the reports published by TCM and its various partners:

1. TCM – Design and Construction

2. Operational Experience and Results

3. TCM – Verified Baseline Results

4. Emissions – Limits, Measurements and Mitigation

5. Aerosols & Mist

6. Solvent Degradation, Management and Reclaiming

7. Process modelling, Scale-up and Cost reduction

8. Transient / Dispatchable operation & Process control

9. Corrosion & Materials

10. CESAR 1 Solvent

Mongstad’s Green Transition is Underway

The green shift at Mongstad is well underway and gaining momentum, says Einar Vaage, Project Manager for Greenspot Mongstad. “Intensive efforts are underway in various companies and on different fronts to transform business and production towards carbon neutrality”.

“Planning and decision-making processes take time and effort, but what’s happening is promising and demonstrates that we are on the right track!» Greenspot Mongstad aims to drive more diversified industry at Mongstad, increase green investments, and promote circular industrial processes.

A Growing Industrial Cluster

«In recent years, the number of companies at Mongstad has increased to over 60, employing a total of 3,000 people. They are located in buildings covering a combined floor area of over 105 acres. Equinor’s refinery remains the largest and central driver of development, while we also have one of Europe’s largest supply bases and the second-largest port in Northern Europe in terms of tonnage shipped in and out. In addition to businesses related to petroleum in various ways, several companies with different business models focused on sustainability are being established.»

Einar Vaage emphasizes that there are unused areas totaling 4,900 acres at Mongstad that are fully zoned for commercial purposes. “This provides us with fantastic opportunities to create an even larger and stronger industrial park. Our local politicians and administrative authorities in the Alver and Austrheim municipalities are knowledgeable and forward-thinking, actively working toward industrial development at Mongstad.»

Portrett av Einar Vaage med skog i bakgrunnen. Foto.
Einar Vaage is the Project Manager for Greenspot Mongstad. «Intensive efforts are underway in various companies and on different fronts to transform business and production towards carbon neutrality», he says.

Working Toward Common Goals

Vaage notes a strong awareness, both politically and among stakeholders at Mongstad, regarding the necessity of taking action to meet national commitments in accordance with the Paris Agreement. “In short, it means that companies with significant emissions must transition, and all new businesses established at Mongstad must capture and store their CO2 emissions.»

Greenspot Mongstad’s project portfolio for decarbonization and industrial transformation is extensive:

  • Energy Tunnel from the Refinery on the Horizon

Efforts have long been underway to route hot water from the refinery, currently discharged into Fensfjorden, through pipelines to the industrial area. The project, led by landowner Asset Buyout Partners, has an estimated budget of NOK 5 – 600 million and is currently in detailed planning. Bids have been obtained from contractors, and with a final investment decision, construction is targeted to commence in spring 2024.

«The purpose is to provide existing buildings with an alternative heating source to electricity and create the foundation for entirely new businesses. The most likely development is the establishment of a land-based fish farming facility, with an application for a license currently under review by the authorities and the selection of an operator in progress. Other initiatives include a project for biogas production based on fish waste and the production of petroleum products from plastic waste.”

  • Aspiring to Establish Five Wind Turbines

The green shift requires increased production of renewable energy. For the Mongstad industrial park, producing electricity from wind turbines within the area could enhance competitiveness compared to other industrial clusters. The landowner has therefore designed a project for five turbines with a capacity to produce 8 GWh each. Documentation is currently being submitted to municipalities for review before potential processing of permits by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE).

  • CO2 Capture and Hydrogen Production

The Mongstad refinery represents the largest industrial source of CO2 emissions in Norway, emitting just under 2 million tons annually. At the recent Mongstad Conference, Equinor presented a feasibility study for CO2 capture and the establishment of a hydrogen factory

«I eagerly await Equinor’s assessments regarding CO2 capture and hydrogen production. If these projects materialize, it will be a game-changer for Mongstad. Nevertheless, I believe that TCM, with its expertise in carbon capture and close relationship with Equinor, can play a crucial advisory role in the process,” says Einar Vaage.

Industrianlegg med to personer med ryggen til som går bort fra kamera. Foto.
Technology Centre Mongstad (TCM). Photo: Eivind Senneset

Challenging Transformation Process

Greenspot Mongstad’s project leader commends the work TCM has done since its inception in 2012 to test and verify carbon capture technologies. “TCM has facilities and, most importantly, a team that has proved invaluable for the development of carbon capture and storage (CCS) as an industry. It’s heartening to see an increasing number of customers, including the recent agreement with American ION Clean Energy. However, like most other businesses at Mongstad, TCM must undergo significant changes.”

Vaage points out that both the state and industrial owners will expect the company to become financially self-sufficient. “In other words, TCM’s operations must be further streamlined and commercialized, which will be challenging in a market accustomed to subsidized conditions. My wish and hope are that the management succeeds in planning and implementing processes that provide TCM with the financial strength and competitiveness needed to continue being a global leader in carbon capture for many years to come. This will benefit not only TCM but the entire exciting industrial cluster at Mongstad.»

Switzerland is investing in carbon capture from incineration plants

The Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) in Switzerland has undertaken ambitious projects aimed at mitigating CO2 emissions stemming from incineration plants through the implementation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies.

In pursuit of this objective, FOEN has entered into a collaborative partnership with TCM’s Advisory Services to get support in setting emission limits to CO2 capturing method. Overseeing these vital efforts is Jürg Kurmann. We have invited him to provide a concise overview of their ongoing endeavors.


«First, I would like to emphasize that the core mission of FOEN, which is dedicated to ensuring the sustainable utilization of natural resources, encompassing soil, water, air, and forests. FOEN is responsible for implementing policies to protect against natural hazards, preserve the environment and thus safeguarde human health from undesirable impacts. Furthermore, it is commited to the conservation of biodiversity, and the enhancement of landscape quality by engaging in shaping international environmental policy.

In Switzerland, several waste incineration facilities have outlined their intentions to curtail CO2 emissions through the implementation of carbon capture from the incineration process. The captured CO2 can then be either utilized for industrial purposes or safely stored. In our capacity as regulatory authorities, we play – together with the cantonal authorities – a pivotal role in guiding these companies throughout the planning and approval phases of such initiatives. This involves rigorous adherence to all legal requirements and, when necessary, the imposition of specific guidelines by the authorities to mitigate environmental harm stemming from pollution.

Lastly, it is essential to note that the federal government, in conjunction with the cantonal authorities, establishes air pollution control standards to ensure the secure operation of these incineration facilities. The measures are in place to guarantee both environmental sustainability and public safety.»

Naturskjønn utsikt over skorsteinen til industrianlegget i den sveitsiske byen Zürich. Foto. Foto
Concrete chimney at a waste incineration plant in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. Photo Michael Derrer Fuchs

«What prompted your decision to collaborate with TCM?»

«Our initial engagement with TCM was instigated by one of the participating Cantons. It became evident to us that TCM possessed a wealth of expertise and experience in this area. As a result, our collaboration with TCM has proven beneficial, allowing us to tap into their valuable knowledge and experience.»


«How has TCM contributed significantly to your work?»

«To begin, TCM has demonstrated that effective capture can be achieved through meticulous emissions control measures. Additionally, TCM played a pivotal role in facilitating our interaction with Norwegian authorities and showcased their strategies for establishing limit-setting frameworks.»


«What benefits do you wish to emphasize resulting from your collaboration with TCM?»

«We particulary underscore the initial exposure to the intricacies of CO2 capture via amine scrubbing. The attentive support provided during the initial phases of the process proved beneficial.»


Jürg Kurmann holds a Master of Science in Geography.

From 2005 – 2015 he worked as Meteorologist in a private office.

Since 2016 he has been Scientific collaborator at The Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) in Switzerland.


«Could you please elaborate on Switzerland’s decarbonization strategy?»

«Switzerland’s decarbonization strategy encompasses several key milestones. The primary objective is to achieve net-zero emissions by the year 2050, aligning with the commitments outlined in the Paris Agreement. The Swiss population approved this main goal in a federal referendum in June 2023. To progress towards this overarching goal, Switzerland has set intermediate targets, including the aim to capture and store 100,000 tons of CO2 annually from waste incineration plants by the year 2030. The first project for CO2 capture at a waste incineration plant is scheduled to commence around 2027.»


«Could you also share the primary challenge that keeps you concerned, as well as the opportunity that inspires you the most?»

«Challenge: Establishing a precise limit value for nitrosamines that provides robust environmental protection. Opportunity: Contributing to the succesful implementation of a potentially transformative technology while ensuring it has minimal adverse effects on the environment.»

 «Thank you very much, and good luck with your important work!»

Delta Energetika: TCM has given confidence of feasibility of our project

Delta Energetika is a privately owned company in Croatia that specializes in electricity production. With support from TCM’s Advisory Services, they are working on a project to develop a Hybrid Power Plant, which currently is in an advanced phase.

The project is led by Vaclav Hlavaty, the Project Director

– Our project consists of Combined Cycle Gas Power Plant (CCGPP), Carbon Capture utilization and storage, hydrogen production and Solar Power Plant. Transport and storage will be managed by 3rd party. The project has an environmental and location permit for CCGPP. The aim is to catch approximately 500.000 tons of CO2 a year.

– Why did you choose to collaborate with TCM?

– Since carbon capture, especially on Gas Power Plants, is relatively new technology, our company had to find a reliable side to help us in the project development phase. During our research we came across TCM who had knowledge and experience.

Portrett av Vaclav Hlavaty. Foto

Vaclav Hlavaty is the Project Director in Delta Energetika. He holds a master’s degree in Processing and Energy and has more than 20 years work experience in the Energy and Oil & Gas Industry.

– What are the most important success factors for succeeding in capturing CO2 in the project?

– Capturing CO2 is complex and expensive. The project must be considered from all aspects. Choosing the right technology and right industrial partner is crucial. Also, what to do with CO2, to find which possibilities for storage and utilization are available.

– In what ways has TCM provided excess value to the project?

TCM provided initial parameters and ensured that CO2 capturing project is on the right track. Also, TCM provided us the support for the application for the Innovation fund.

– What would you like to highlight as a benefit of the collaboration with TCM?

I will emphasize that the collaboration with TCM has given us confidence of feasibility of the Carbon Capture Project.

– What is the decarbonization strategy of your company?

Delta energetika is solely dedicated to the Hybrid Power Plant Slavonski Brod project. CO2 capturing, transportation and storage is a way of our company to produce electricity and provide stability to the energy system with minimal emission of GHG gasses to the atmosphere. The illustration below is a model of the Hybrid Power Plan SB.

Model av Hybrid Power Plant SB satt inn i et landskap. Illustrasjon

– Can you say few words on the roadmap of your company to meet its decarbonization targets?

The plan is to realize Hybrid Power Plant in phases; CCGT by 2027, meanwhile progressing with preparation of the licenses and design for Carbon Capture, Hydrogen and Solar plant and their construction by the 2030.

– What is the one challenge that keeps you awake and the one opportunity that gets you excited?

The greatest challenge will be finding a final solution for the carbon storage. The opportunity that gets me excited is how to use CO2 as a product and getting additional benefit from it.

TCM Report; Operational Experience & Results

16 reports have been drafted to date based on operational experience at the TCM CO2 capture facilities. These cover more than 10 years of operation and are based on our partnerships with academia, research institutes and a range of technology suppliers.

Overview of reports with operational experience

In this series of reports, you can read about our experiences of operating carbon capture facilities with a range of capture technologies and CO2 concentrations. These experiences are based operation of the amine plant (mainly with non-proprietary MEA and CESAR1 solvents), Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) plant and the dedicated Site for Emerging Technologies which tests next generation capture technologies such as membranes and sorbents.

  • Operational Experience and Initial Results from the First Test Period at CO2 Technology Centre Mongstad
  • Chilled Ammonia Process at Technology Centre Mongstad – First Results
  • Results of amine plant operations from 30 wt% and 40 wt% aqueous MEA testing at the CO2 Technology Centre Mongstad
  • Results from testing of Aker Solutions advanced amine solvents at CO2 Technology Centre Mongstad
  • Field Demonstration of Advanced CDRMax Solvent at the USDOE’s National Carbon Capture Centre and the CO2 Technology Centre Mongstad DA, Norway
  • Results from 30 wt% MEA performance testing at the CO2 Technology Centre Mongstad
  • CO2 product quality: assessment of the range and level of impurities in the CO2 product stream from MEA testing at the Technology Centre Mongstad (TCM)
  • CO2 capture from RFCC flue gas with 30 wt% MEA at Technology Centre Mongstad, process optimization and performance comparison
  • ION’s 6-month campaign at TCM with its low-aqueous capture solvent removing CO2 from natural gas-fired and residue fluid catalytic cracker flue gases
  • Results of the fourth Technology Centre Mongstad campaign: LVC testing
  • CO2 Capture and work environmental sampling at TCM – lessons learned
  • First Process Results and Operational Experience with CESAR1 Solvent at TCM with High Capture Rates (ALIGN-CCUS Project)
  • Critical Knowledge for CO2-Intensive Industries to Implement Amine-Based Carbon Capture
  • CO2 Capture from SMR type flue gas using CESAR1 solvent at Technology Centre Mongstad
  • Demo-scale testing of a hybrid membrane-sorbent system for post-combustion CO2 capture
  • Scale-Up Testing of Advanced Polaris™ Membrane CO2 Capture Technology
Technology Centre Mongstad (TCM). Foto: Eivind Senneset

Critical Knowledge for CO2-Intensive Industries to Implement Amine-Based Carbon Capture

This paper has been written to provide some decarbonisation guidelines and recommendations for different CO2-intensive industrial applications such as Cement, Oil Refineries, Waste to Energy, Steel, H2 Production, Aluminium and Pulp & Paper. Relevant information has been provided for any potential project targeting a significant reduction in CO2 emissions. The importance of flue gas characterisation has been indicated, including which typical components in the flue gas should be measured since these are important for properly planning and designing a CO2 capture project. Additionally, based on Technology Centre Mongstad’s (TCM) experience with both clean flue gas (CCGT) and more contaminated flue gas (RFCC), recommendations are given for the importance of good solvent hygiene and maintaining low amine emissions to the stack and surrounding environment. It is expected that each of the industrial applications described will lie somewhere between the CCGT and RFCC in terms of flue gas cleanliness. It has also been demonstrated that material integrity of a CO2 capture plant can be compromised if solvent hygiene is not maintained. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that material integrity and selection can have a considerable impact on CO2 capture plant cost and reliability of operation.

Contact Muhammed Ismail Shah for further details.

Below is an overview of the reports published by TCM and its various partners.

  1. TCM Design & Construction
  2. Operational Experience & Results
  3. TCM Verified Baseline Results
  4. Emissions – Limits, Measurements and Mitigation
  5. Aerosols & Mist
  6. Solvent Degradation, Management and Reclaiming
  7. Process modelling, Scale-up and Cost reduction
  8. Transient / Dispatchable operation & Process control
  9. Corrosion & Materials
  10. CESAR 1 Solvent
  11. MEA Solvent

TCM instrumental in commercial deployment of CCS

All seven technology suppliers who have conducted testing in TCM’s amine plant have either previously participated in FEED studies relating to the establishment of full-scale carbon capture plants in Europe and North America or have gone on to do so following their work at TCM.

“This illustrates the importance of TCM in developing the capture and storage industry the world needs to achieve the long-term goal of net zero emissions,” says Muhammad Ismail Shah, TCM’s Managing Director.

Full-scale capture facility

When public and private sector stakeholders with significant CO2 emissions consider whether to construct a full-scale capture facility, there are several phases to the process encompassing planning, project maturation and decision making. The first phase is pre-planning or screening, which establishes whether the proposal is realisable and determines rough cost estimates. The scope of the project is largely undefined at this stage and this phase represents the point in the project life cycle where the least effort is required. Cost estimates at this juncture are typically on a +/-50% basis. If the outcome of this phase is positive, a more thorough study (known as a feasibility study) is conducted to further refine the concept and define the scope in order to provide a better understanding of costs with an uncertainty factor usually in range of +/- 30 – 40%.

Front End Engineering and Design

“If a decision is taken to proceed from this stage, the next project phase is what is known as the Front End Engineering and Design (FEED studies). This involves a preparing a description of how all major equipment, instruments, piping, structures etc. that the facility entails will be designed, as well as its integration and interfaces with other parts or systems of the application, including thorough calculations for the need for energy and materials in the capture process. Cost uncertainty in this phase is typically confined to +/-15-20% percent,” says Shah.

In other words, the outcome of the FEED phase is decisive in determining whether ground will be broken on the project following the final phase of Detailed Engineering, and a further reduction in cost uncertainty to +/- 5 – 10 %. “The construction of both of the two capture projects included in the Norwegian Longship project has been the subject of planning in all four phases as described, with Aker Carbon Capture as the technology supplier to the cement factory in Brevik and Shell Cansolv to Hafslund Oslo Celsio respectively.”

Muhammad Ismail Shah dressed in PPE at the test plant. Photo.

Muhammad Ismail Shah: “TCM is a necessary milestone on the road to testing and verifying capture technologies and mitigating all technical, environmental and financial risks that industries all over the world will depend on in order to achieve the net zero goals.” (Photo: Thomas Førde)

CCS must pick up the pace

TCM’s Managing Director notes that only in a single case – a test centre in the USA – has technology been selected for use in a capture facility without prior testing taking place in the amine plant at Mongstad. “This shows the importance of TCM as a necessary milestone on the road to testing and verifying capture technologies and mitigating all technical, environmental and financial risks that industries all over the world will depend on in order to achieve the net zero goals,” he emphasises. 

“I am certain that a number of the projects shown in the FEED overview will make final decisions on investment and construction by the end of 2024. Yet we must also recognise that the pace of establishing new CCS projects must greatly increase in order to meet adopted targets on climate neutrality. This in turn assumes that the technology suppliers have a suitable forum for testing and verifying technologies on an almost full scale. TCM is uniquely positioned in this respect,” says Muhammad Ismail Shah.

Technology suppliers who have used TCM’s amine plant.


Campaign (Year)


Aker Clean Capture



Shell Cansolv

2014-2015, 2016, 2022


Carbon Clean Solutions



Shell Cansolv



Ion Engineering






Mitsubishi Engineering (MHI)



RTI International



Shell Cansolv